The Making of ‘Network’

BETHESDA, MD.—“Mad As Hell: The Making of ‘Network’ and the Fateful Vision of the Angriest Man in Movies,”a book that explores the production of an outlandish film about the television industry, was just published. The film remains a classic examination of how broadcasting works, at least at some levels.

To many people, the script was a prescient prediction of what TV became in the subsequent decades. For production and operations insiders, as well as anyone who appreciates the creative process, “Mad As Hell” presents fascinating insights into how a high-profile movie takes shape, including historic decisions about the look of TV four decades ago.

Here are a few of my thoughts about the book and the movie, starting with my first exposure to “Network,” at an invitation-only screening in Washington, just before its release in late 1976.

FCC “chairman for life” Richard Wiley actually was chairman of the commission when “Network” debuted. At a reception after the screening, I asked him about one of my favorite scenes in the film, the one in which the TV network president frets about the plan for a “pornographic news show” as proposed by the aggressive programming vice president, Diana Christensen, played by Faye Dunaway.

“The FCC’d kill us,” says the top executive.

“The FCC can’t do anything except rap our knuckles,” sneers Robert Duvall’s Frank Hackett, the factotum from the corporate giant that has acquired the TV network.

I asked Wiley what the FCC would do in that situation. With his famous smile and evasive political acumen, the regulator-in-chief grinned, “We’d probably just rap their knuckles.”

The scene came to mind as I read “Mad As Hell,” by The New York Times writer Dave Itzkoff. Its release conveniently coincided with the angry howling about how the FCC should handle the proposed Comcast-Time Warner Cable merger and the issue of Network Neutrality. After all, an underlying theme of “Network” is the corporatization of media, along with anger about media consolidation.

That’s the milieu that inspires Howard Beale (Peter Finch’s Oscar-winning “mad prophet of the airwaves”) to proclaim the titular mantra, “I’m mad as hell, and I’m not going to take this anymore!”

The current confluence of media politics and public malaise makes a great backdrop to revisit the best media movie ever made. As Itzkoff reports, “Network” is the favorite film (and we assume a formative inspiration) of Stephen Colbert, Glenn Beck, Keith Olbermann and Bill O’Reilly: Modern incarnations of Beale on networks that are far less concerned about knuckle raps.

Unfortunately, Itzkoff never bluntly declares that screenwriter/producer Paddy Chayefsky’s “United Broadcasting System” was a prescient forbearer of Fox and the many opinionated cable networks that fit into Chayefsky’s concept of what the “dehumanizing institution” of television would become.

The culmination of Howard Beale’s revelatory arc is the come-to-Jesus harangue that Arthur Jensen (played by Net Beatty) delivers to him in a darkened cathedral (played by the New York Public Library boardroom; Chayefsky’s first choice was the New York Stock Exchange boardroom, but NYSE reneged when its managers figured out that corporate America would not look good in this scene. They were right: it doesn’t).

Jensen, as the head of the Communications Corp. of America, chastises Beale for “meddling with the primal forces of nature” and reminds him of the “corporate cosmology” that includes a “perfect world” controlled by “one vast and ecumenical holding company.”

“There is only one holistic system of systems. Dollars!” thunders Jensen. Beale gets the message.

Conveniently, HBO ran “Network” on the day that Comcast and Time Warner Cable unveiled their merger. Of course, I have copies of the movie close at hand or could quickly find it in the cloud, but I DVR’d the show to watch as I read the book. Seeing the movie, which I highly recommend doing on a regular basis, and reading Itzkoff’s book are vivid reminders about how today’s media-driven culture has inserted itself even more substantially into our lives than Chayefsky, co-producer Howard Gottfried and director Sidney Lumet could have imagined.

As an admirer of Chayefsky’s perspicacious writing, I was fascinated by the backstory that fomented this script. My main question was, “Why did it take 38 years to write this book?” It’s a worthy quick-read, especially for TV industry people who enjoy the gossip—albeit it 40 years late—and for movie buffs who appreciate production trivia (Kathy Cronkite, daughter of Walter, plays the kidnapped heiress-turned-gun-toting terrorist; William Holden was best man at the wedding of Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis; Dunaway demanded control over her nude scene).

While the book is padded with peripheral contemporaneous stories and interviews with current TV luminaries, “Mad As Hell” adds countless insights about how and why the movie was made this way. It triggers the desire to see this great movie again.

As is true of much great literature, your perceptions of a story and characters change as you see them from different places in your own life. At that swank Washington screening when I first saw “Network,” I appreciated its insights on business, love and personal relationships based on what I knew and understood at that young point in life. Clearly, this movie has looked different every time I’ve seen it through the decades, when I understood more about business, work, marriage, world affairs and the machinations within our multichannel media ecosystem.

It’s the same movie, but it says something different every time. “Mad as Hell” fleshes out how the grown-ups who made the movie in the mid-1970s brought big truths to the story.

Beale spells it out in one of his harangues about who controls the media: “Woe is us if it ever falls into the hands of the wrong people.”

After all the hoopla and Oscars for Chayefsky and three actors, “Network” did not win that year’s Academy Award for Best Picture. That Oscar went to “Rocky,” the story about a powerhouse from Philadelphia.

How appropriate.

Gary Arlen waxes on digital developments from Arlen Communications (

Gary Arlen

Gary Arlen, a contributor to Broadcasting & Cable, NextTV and TV Tech, is known for his visionary insights into the convergence of media + telecom + content + technology. His perspectives on public/tech policy, marketing and audience measurement have added to the value of his research and analyses of emerging interactive and broadband services. Gary was founder/editor/publisher of Interactivity Report, TeleServices Report and other influential newsletters; he was the long-time “curmudgeon” columnist for Multichannel News as well as a regular contributor to AdMap, Washington Technology and Telecommunications Reports; Gary writes regularly about trends and media/marketing for the Consumer Technology Association's i3 magazine plus several blogs.