just told you a
project that starts in
six months requires you
to move all of your editing,
storage and production
systems to a temporary
construction. Then you
must move it back when the rooms are ready.
Six weeks prior to this notice you’d started
an upgrade that would add new capabilities
to your current operations. Now you’re
faced with some new issues: Get your new
system up and running only to tear it apart
and move it to another temporary location.
Fortunately, you’d anticipated this might
happen, so in the planning phases of the
upgrade you unknowingly made some very
important decisions. You figured, at the least,
you should build out a tiered storage architecture
for the future; and second, you included
an investment in a media asset management
component that added an archive
solution coupled to digital tape.
AN AUTOMATED PROCESS
Storage tiering is an important and
evolving part of any storage architecture
for today’s digital media environments. Yet
storage tiering is nothing new; this column
has discussed the concepts and methodologies
of tiered storage for several years.
|Fig 1: Typical three-tier, enterprise-level storage architecture with high-performance storage (tier 1), nearline (tier 2) and long-term LTO tape archive (tier 3). Some may place their tier 3 storage in the
cloud if the need for accessibility is not great enough to warrant an in-house, highly accessible tape archive.
However, what is now changing in today’s
modern digital environment is a
shift from what was once largely a semiautomatic
or even all-manual process into
one that is (depending upon your current
storage deployment), an automated process
driven by advancing technologies surrounding
sub-LUN, block-based storage systems
coupled to new drive technologies.
Out of necessity, storage systems are
now required to ebb and flow based upon
business needs and peripheral system demands.
Understandably, we find that storage
systems never seem to diminish in
total capacity. They can, however, shrink in
their local technical footprints based upon
storage density increases, distribution of
content to alternative sites or locations, or
other physical parameters.
One of the factors affecting these physical
requirements—the “technical footprint” if
you will—is the increasing growth of solidstate
drives. SSDs are now deployed in many
areas associated with the management of
digital media, metadata and applications.
SSDs consume less space and power
than spinning disks. They are faster, more
reliable, last longer, require less cooling
and can be used in physical environments
where magnetic rotating media might not
One of the applications for SSDs that
has grown out of need and capability is that SSDs are now deployed in the automated
migration of data from one tier level
to another of a storage system. Once seen
as an almost completely manual task, the
movement of data from primary disk media
(i.e., “the C drive”) to secondary disk
(e.g., a portable backup drive), can now be
accomplished entirely in software, and at a
block level versus a LUN level.
In a major digital media production environment,
asset management systems are
looked upon to sense, manage and move
data from primary high-performance storage
to inexpensive tertiary storage such as
near-line (SATA disks) or tape media. This
practice was often lumped into the term
“hierarchical storage management” (HSM),
a term that grew from the world of transactional
data processing—that belonging to
cash registers, ATMs, online purchasing or
In an HSM system, data that was “in process”
would be held on high-availability
storage. Once the transaction was completed
and all the necessary links to the
databases verified, the data would sit idle
for minutes to hours. HSM would watch
that data and then automatically move it to
another storage tier for days to weeks, depending
upon usage algorithms or policies.
Eventually, that data would be archived
to a tape system for long-term preservation
and purged from spinning disk. Only the
summary information plus a pointer in a
metadata database would remain such that
if called upon, the detailed data could be
retrieved (restored) back to high-availability
storage for other activities.
These processes were time-consuming,
drive-intensive and took away from other
system activities to the point that an entirely
new storage migration server system would
need to be deployed just to manage this continual
data (and metadata) migratory process.
Most users, especially in the earlier
days of digital media systems, didn’t have
a MAM or an HSM system to “watchdog”
their assets. Thus, all the data would accumulate
on the same storage system until
capacities were reached. Then someone
would manually move the more important
files to another storage medium.
THERE ARE RISKS
Risks due to data losses could be enormous
and the costs to add mirrored system
devices were costly or unaffordable. The
advent of SSDs and automated processes
has helped change that practice.
SSDs allow for data to be managed at a
much finer-grained level than array- or LUN-based
storage tiers. SSDs now seriously reduce
the time required for data migration,
especially when operating at the block level
as compared to data management at the
LUN (logical unit number) level.
Previously system-taxing operations,
which were dedicated to specialized servers,
can now be deployed in software.
Some vendors now claim data migration
between tiers is achievable in real time,
vastly improving performance and making
much better use of the SSD data caches.
Enterprise-level storage systems depend
upon a consistent and predictable level of
storage tier migration. Often these classes
of systems must not only continually replicate
entire data sets between main, backup
and even third level—remote or geographically
they must also manage the data among the
closest users on the network or calculate
the fastest path through a fabric to achieve
optimal performance for editors, ingest
systems or delivery services.
Tiering is just one of the methods used
by enterprise-level data systems to keep
operations flowing and users happy
Combining the capabilities of SSDs
achieves increased performance by balancing
between content that is less active
(kept on disk) versus content that is highly
active and kept on SSDs. Thus, when read/
write production activities are low, software
switches the SSD’s functions to storage
tier management; and vice versa.
The overall results are transparent, with
productivity increasing and mitigating having
to add additional spindles or storage
capacity to achieve similar results.
Karl Paulsen, CPBE and SMPTE Fellow,
is the CTO at Diversified Systems.
Read more about other storage topics in
his current book “Moving Media Storage
Technologies”. Contact Karl at email@example.com.