Doug Lung /
05.01.2008 05:20 PM
TV Receive Antennas
Of all the columns I've written, the ones describing do-it-yourself antennas always bring the most response, sometimes years after the original column was written. This month I'll describe the "new" UHF receive antenna design that was released recently under the GNU Public License ( You shouldn't have to worry about infringing on someone's patent building this antenna. According to the Web site describing the antenna,, Doyt R. Hoverman originally secured a patent in 1959 and 1964. Both patents have now expired. Radio Shack and AntennaCraft sold the antennas. There is a picture of one of these on the Web site.

User "Autofils" on the Canadian DTV discussion forum, shared his version of the Hoverman antenna and, with the help of computer modeling, improved it. The modified antenna, referred to as the Gray-Hoverman antenna, improves on the original design. Computer modeling shows, in a configuration similar to a 4-bay bow tie with reflector, it outperforms the bow-tie array. Stack two Gray-Hoverman antennas and the model shows better in-core UHF performance than the popular Channel Master 4228 8-bay bow-tie antenna.

The tradeoff is that the gain of the Gray-Hoverman antenna falls off rapidly at higher channels, and especially above Channel 54, where it has less gain than the 4228. At lower channels, however, the gain can be 2 dB or higher than the Channel Master antenna. Performance with a 4-bay Gray-Hoverman antenna is shown to beat the Channel Master 4-bay bow tie, model 4221, by a similar amount at some frequencies.


Fig. 1: Dimensions of a single-bay Gray-Hoverman antenna
The plots for the Gray-Hoverman antenna show it having a somewhat broader main lobe with less side lobes and, if a screen type reflector is used, less of a back lobe than the bow-tie with reflector type antennas. The wider beam width also makes antenna aiming less critical.

In March, engineers were passing around the link to a video on YouTube describing how to make your own 4-bay bow-tie antenna from coat-hanger wire, The Gray-Hoverman design should be easier to build, as there are no crossover phasing lines required and only two long wires are needed for the driven elements. As Fig. 1 shows, the antenna is very simple to construct. The Digital Home Web page has full details on the single bay and double bay antenna designs and pictures of finished antennas. If you are having difficulty reading Fig. 1, visit the Web site above or view, save or print a full-page color PDF plot from my Web site at

In the interest of precision, and to match the drawing on the superantenna Web site, dimensions are in millimeters. Conversion shouldn't be difficult as bends in the driven element are all spaced 127 mm, or 5 inches, apart. It should be noted that to achieve the best performance, the reflector elements are not connected in the center. There is a 20 mm (about 25/32) gap at the center of the antenna. Maintain the gap even if a screen type reflector is used to achieve the performance modeled on the Web site. The gap for the driven elements is 44 mm (about 1-23/32 inches). A high quality 300-ohm to 75-ohm balun/matching transformer should be connected to the two points marked "Feed" on the drawing. The two pairs of center reflector elements are shorter (295 mm or 11-5/8 inches) than the four pairs of 306 mm (12-1/16 inches) outer reflector elements. The spacing of the top and bottom reflector elements is greater than the spacing of the inner reflector elements—190.5 mm (7-1/2 inches) versus 127 mm (5 inches). The driven elements are spaced 100 mm (3-15/16 inches) from the screen or rod reflector elements.


I'd appreciate hearing from readers who build this antenna. If you want to build the double-bay version, which the Web site shows outperforms the Channel Master 4228, simply space the bottom element of the top antenna and the top element of the bottom antenna 127 mm (5 inches) apart. Connect the two antennas with a phasing line 30 mm behind the reflector with the wires spaced 20 mm apart and fed in the center with a 300-ohm balun/matching transformer.

I hope to have a chance to build one of these antennas and give it a try. I'm intrigued by a design on the Digital Home Web site showing an antenna using fabric from a metalized "space blanket" as the reflector. If you can come up with a way to collapse the driven element (perhaps with hinges using ring lugs and screws or banana plugs and jacks perhaps), this could make a very interesting portable antenna. Add a few suction cups to hang it on the hotel room window and I'm sure it would work a lot better than the whip antenna I usually use. Of course, getting it through airport security might be an issue, unless you run into a ham or RF engineer working the security lines.

Don't laugh—I've had it happen to me twice. In Burbank, Calif., one inspector was a ham radio operator that was very interested in my assortment of electronics, especially my Kenwood TH-6A transceiver. Another, in Denver, was interested in the bag of RF adapters I was carrying, having worked with RF in the military.


In my travels I've used a number of different portable DTV antennas. After carrying a battery-operated preamplified antenna around for a while, I settled on the nonmagnetic whip antenna and about 6 feet of miniature coax included with Hauppauge HVR-950. On my last trip, when I was testing out a new Artec T-18AR ATSC USB stick, I packed the flat postcard sized antenna (Artec AN-2) and suction cup mount that were included with it. This small antenna out-performed the whip antenna at both UHF and high VHF when I tested it in San Francisco. While the antenna was small for VHF, I believe the improved performance was due to it being a balanced antenna and not dependent on a ground plane, like the whip antenna.

Richard Swank, who maintains the KNTV transmitter for NBC in San Jose/San Francisco, alerted me to a new antenna from Artec—the AN-2A—which includes a USB powered preamplifier. The gain, with preamplifier, is specified as 14 dBi at UHF and 8 dBi at VHF. I haven't seen any of the Artec retailers selling this antenna. If I'm able to get ahold of one, I'll let you know how it works. It sounds like a winner! More information is available on the Artec Web site at

Next month, depending on how much there is to report from NAB, I'll have details on some new ATSC USB tuners and perhaps some tests of the Gray-Hoverman antenna.

Comments are always welcome. E-mail me at Please note that due to an e-mail client problem I lost many messages sent to my and e-mail addresses during the first three weeks of March. If you sent me an e-mail during that period and haven't received a reply, please resend it.

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Posted by: Brian Smith
Tue, 11-01-2011 08:44 PM Report Comment
The GPL has been misapplied by the Gray-Hoverman folks. Their designs are in the public domain since they never patented improvements. The GPL has nothing to do with ideas like antenna designs.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Wed, 11-02-2011 01:50 PM Report Comment
Old Fart Alert! To Comment #1: Huh? To Comment #2: Antenna design, and experimenting, is 100% done with software these days. NEC for sure, but other systems include FDTD. The prototype phase only begins after a design survives the scrutiny of modeling. I don't want to understate this, but antenna design is just electromagnetics, not magic.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Fri, 06-05-2009 01:18 AM Report Comment
User "Autofils" simply copied Doyt Hoverman's design, added a couple of reflector rods and renamed it Grey-Hoverman. No changes or improvements were made to the Hoverman array itself. Unfortunately this type of patent trolling occurs more often than not.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Wed, 11-04-2009 05:46 PM Report Comment
For sure, their design actually does a disservice to Doyt's array and to his name. If you look at his second patented design it'll push 14db. All they did was load it up and cut it out of pvc.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Tue, 07-28-2009 04:51 AM Report Comment
Agreed here #1. Most of their designs other than (very interesting theoretical antennas) CADding come from....surprise! 40-70 year old ideas of REAL antenna designers, and not noobs with free antenna programs.... Too bad people don't read books anymore, they might learn that ANY piece of wire in ANY design, bend, or shape (even straight, or looped) makes an antenna that WILL work...... Go grab some wire and experiment. After all, that was how the REAL designers, and not those wannabes, built the antennas that ran the world.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Fri, 09-23-2011 04:23 PM Report Comment
Yeah guys, There is a huge difference between wanting to BUILD an antenna that works vs. DESIGNING your own from scratch. There are not a lot of people out there with the time it would take to actually read enough to thoroughly understand the principles and Ph.D.-Level Calculus that it would take to properly design a broadband antenna for use within a particular bandwidth. One individual can only acheive so much specialized knowledge, and some are better at building, while some like to "geek-out" on the theory. I believe that this was a case of one or several people stumbling across an old design that worked for UHF in the "old days" and adapting it to HDTV broadcasts, which use similar wavelengths. In their defense, they DO make efforts to credit the originator of the design.
Posted by: Brian Smith
Thu, 10-14-2010 06:00 PM Report Comment,173 Check post at bottom of page to see what a preamplified single-bay Hoverman can do in a very very poor reception area...
Posted by: Anonymous
Mon, 10-21-2013 11:44 PM Report Comment
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